The declaration of independence

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In Congress, July 4, 1776,


When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one

people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them

with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the

separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of

Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of

mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel

them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created

equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain

unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the

pursuit of Happiness.

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,

deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these

ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it,

and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such

principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them

shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established

should not be changed for light and transient causes; and

accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more

disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right

themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing

invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under

absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw

off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future


Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such

is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former

Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great

Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all

having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny

over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a

candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and

necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and

pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till

his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has

utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large

districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the

right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable

to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,

uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public

Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance

with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing

with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause

others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable

of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their

exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the

dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States;

for that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of

Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations

hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his

Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure

of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms

of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without

the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and

superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction

Реферат опубликован: 2/11/2009