We are students at the Ukrainian Academy of Law. Our Academy is one of the oldest educational establishment of this type in the Country. Its 70th anniversari was marked in 1990. The Academy is housed in one of the best buildings of our city. This is the house in 77 Pushkinskaya Street designed and constructed by Beketov-a well-known Russian architect. It has a great number of light, spacious class-rooms, lecture-halls, a gymnasium, a reading-room,etc. There are also special studi rooms and laboratories here. The students have every opportuniti to master their future profession which is law. Our Academy trains practical workers for law offices. The course of study at the Academy is five years. Besides the day-time department there is also an evening and a corespondense department at the academy where the students study 5,5 years. We study general and special law subjects. Among the general subjects are history of the Political science, the History of the Economic science, Philosophy, Sociology, Ecological law and a foreign Language – English, German and French. The law subjects are: criminal law, criminal procedure, criminology, criminalistics, civil law, civil procedure, labour law, ecological law, international law and some others. We attend lectures, seminars and tutorials. Ciasses usually begin at 8.00 in the morning and are over at 12.30 in the afternoon. After classes many students hurry to the canteen to have dinner and after a short rest begin prepearing for their lessons and seminars in the reading room or a study room. A very important part in training future specialists is played by the Students Scientific Society, and a lot of students carry on research work in its numerous circles. All of us also take part in the public activities of the Academy. Almost all the out-of town students live in the hostel. At the end of each term we take credit tests and examinations. They are called terminals. All those who pass exams successfully are granted stipends. At the end of the corse of study the students take state examenations. Finals, as they are often called. When we graduate from the academy we shall work accordihgly to our appointments as investigators, judges, procurators, etc. Some of us will work in the militia. Every year our country gets highly qualified specialists standing on guard of legality and law and order.
THE UKRAINIAN COURT.
The court is the main instruments of enforcing law. The fates of people, defence of their interests, maintance of relations between the state and the citizen defined by the law and the observance of public order greatly depend on the court. 1. Justise in Ukraine is administered only by the court in strict conformity with the law.2. Justice is administered on the principle of the equality of citizens before the law and the court.3. All citizens have the right to legal defence.4. Judges are independent and subject only to the law. The inviolability of judges and other guarantees of their independence are provided for by the law.5. All courts are formed on the principle of the electiveness or appointment of judges. The judges are elected by the president for a term of 5 years, and then by the Verchovna Rada for… In trial courts ( courts of original jurisdiction) cases may be examined either by a judge alone or colegially with a pannel of three professional judges or the jury ( when dealing with more serious crimes and civil ofences). When the case is tried by a judge alone he pases ruling and a sentence. When hearing of criminal cases is collegial the court brings in decision or a judgement. 6. There exist a system of independent courts in Ukraine, all of them having their own competence: the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ensure the conformity of laws and other normative acts to the Constitution of Ukraine; General Courts comprise district (city) courts, interdistrict (circuit) courts, regional courts and the Supreme Court of Ukraine. These Courts try civil, Criminal and administrative cases. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest judicial organ in the system of general courts. It is a court of appelate and cassation jurisdiction. The Court of Arbitration ensures the defence of rights and legitimate interests of participants in economic relations.7. Proceedings in all courts are open to the public.8. The suspect, the accused and the defendant are ensured the rights to legal defence. The amendments introduced into the Fundamenals of Criminal Legal Procedure envisage the defence lawer being allowed to take part in a case from the moment an accusation is made or a suspect detained.9. No one may be adjudged guilty of a crime and subjected to punishment as a criminal except by the sentence of a court and in conformity with the law.10. Representatives of public organizations and work collectives may take part in the examination of civil and criminal cases in court.
Status: a parliamentary monarchy. Executive power: the Cabinet of Ministers.
Реферат опубликован: 21/01/2010